Re: specific words..
Are you asking how to increase your vocabulary in specific areas?
The answer is to read. Read about the topics that interest you.
If you are interested in the weather, read weather reports, but also read about what forces in nature create our weather.
If you are interested in geography, you can read about many countries, paying attention to the parts of the articles that talk about the country's geography.
Reading will show you how these words are used. Simply reading dictionaries or vocabulary lists won't show you how people actually use those words.
I'm not a teacher, but I write for a living. Please don't ask me about 2nd conditionals, but I'm a safe bet for what reads well in (American) English.