# Thread: The use of "BY"

1. Newbie
Join Date
Oct 2005
Posts
3

## The use of "BY"

Hi can you help please professor,
Can you tell me why the word by is used in the following sentence when it isnīt needed.
I save money by doing my own cooking

2. Junior Member
Join Date
Sep 2005
Posts
92

## Re: The use of "BY"

No, I can't. It's language not mathematics we're studying here.

In English, you have the choice:

I save money by doing my own cooking

I save money doing my own cooking

There's some stylistic ellipsis going on here, that's all.

3. Member
Join Date
Sep 2005
Posts
120

## Re: The use of "BY"

Hello JJM Ballantyne
I'm with you. I'd like to study language, too.

4. ## Re: The use of "BY"

Welcome.

Originally Posted by tonyp
I save money by doing my own cooking
Additionally, there is a method to the mathness. Call it "efficiency".

Both the preposition "by" and the adverb of means "doing my own cooking" express a means. The former expresses it in a word, whereas the latter expresses it in its function. "by" is redundant. The meaning it expresses is already housed within its object's structural function.

EX: I saved money. How/By what means? By doing my own cooking.
EX: I saved money. How/By what means? Doing my own cooking.

With or without "by", the phrase "(by) doing my own cooking" functions as an adverb of means, which makes "by" superfluous in context.

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