Re: WERE TO in Conditionals
I'm not surprised that you are having difficulty in understanding this. "Were to" is increasingly used very seldom in written English, and hardly ever in Spoken English. "Was" is often used instead, or another structure altogether.
Your use of the phrase in the examples look correct to me, but I would write your sentences as follows:
1. a. If I had no friend, whom [pedantically] would I spend my time with?
Or, even more pedantically [to avoid ending the sentence with a proposition]... with whom would I spend my time?
1. b. If Adam was my boss, this job would be intolerable.
2.a. If the dam had burst, the whole town would have been destroyed.
3. a. If I lost my job next month, I would probably not find a new one quickly.