I don't understand why an author wrote "...he had had to flee..."?
As far as I know when I use "he had to + verb", it automatically refers to
some kind of force that had made him do something but here the author
has written the following;
"Within six years he had been defeated "
by his Barakzai enemies and had had to flee into exile in India.
(Taken from Dalrymple's book, Return of a King: The battle of Afghanistan)
Is it also correct if I say the aforementioned line as "...and had to flee..."?
Why "had" used here two times?