Question about -ed phrases
I have a question about -ed phrases.
My grammar book says
But, "-ed phrases have a passive meaning" sounds vague to me.
-ed phrases have a passive meaning:
1 : The boy injured in the accident was taken to the hospital. (the boy was injured in the accident)
2 : Some of the people invited to the party can't come. (they have been invited)
3 : Most of the goods made in this factory are exported. (the goods are made...)
-ed phrases could have any meanings (Simple Present, Simple Past, Present Perfect and sometimes Past Perfect) that is passive?
To give an actual example,
"This is the book read by my student." could have any meaning of these by context?
"This is the book which is read by my student."
"This is the book which was read by my student."
"This is the book which has been read by my student."
Thank you for your time. And please excuse my poor explanation.
On the other hand, explanation of -ing phrases is very definite.My grammar book says
This is the reason why I ask such a question.
We use -ing phrases to say what somebody (or something) is/was doing at a particular time:
1 : Do you know the woman talking to Tom? (the woman is talking to Tom)
2 : Who were those people waiting outside? (they were waiting)
When you are talking about things (and sometimes people), you can use -ing phrases to say what something does all the time, not just at a particular time. For example:
1 : The road connecting the two towns is very narrow. (the road connects two towns)
2 : I have a large bedroom overlooking the garden. (the bedroom overlooks the garden)