I'm a "ma'am" but I'll try to answer your questions!
"The fact that many people here are getting promotion(s)" is the full subject (noun clause: the fact that+s+v)
"is causing" is the main verb
"my friend" is the object
"distress", well, actually I can't remember what it is called (besides a "noun", but its meaning is like a causative verb structure: "causing him to be distressed" .
Off thetop of my head I can't think if any other causative verbs can take a noun like that, but some other examples of cause + noun are:
cause her discomfort
cause her great pain
Hope that helps!
- For Teachers