1. Does 'off the table' mean beyond consideration?
"Off the table" is a phrase, meaning withdrawn, no longer available. It is probably relating to "the negotiating table" in a figurative sense.
2. Is it OK to say, "the question is off the table" to mean "the question is impossible to occur therefore people don't care about it" or "the question doesn't make sense therefore people don't care about answering it"?#
Yes, you can. Then the question is no longer being discussed or considered. The contrary would be: The question is on the table. We can't put off discussing it.
3. "We will take no options off the table to achieve that goal."
Does the quote mean 'we will take any possible steps to achieve the goal'?
Yes. We won't restrict any possibilities that can help us achieve that goal.
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