Look at the following sentences:
#1. In criticizing the painting, I knew I would offend her.
#2. By criticizing the painting, I knew I would offend her.
Do they both have the exact same meaning? If not, what's the difference between sentence #1 and 2?
Re: Participle clause
The difference lies in the difference between the two prepositions. In this context, "in" could be interpreted as "in the process of" (in the process of criticizing the painting, but "by" can be interpreted as "by way of" (By way of criticizing the painting).
Originally Posted by Noego