For many years the banks themselves decided what reserve ratio constituted a safe proportion of currency to hold against their demand deposits.
1. In "hold against", is the verb "hold" still a transitive verb requiring an object? To me, HOLD is always a transitive verb and in this case, the object is "currency". Am I right?
2. What does "against" mean here? "Against" could mean "in contrast". But what does it link with here? Hold currency against demand deposits? Still need to pinpoint the exact meaning of "against"?
Re: Hold against
I think "contrast" is pretty close but "balance" in an accounting sense might be better in this situation.
Re: Hold against
I agree with the redcrows’ interpretation concerning the exprssion in question.
Reserve ratio = the portion (expressed as a percent) of depositors' balances banks must have on hand as cash. This is a requirement determined by the country's central bank, which in the U.S. is the Federal Reserve. The reserve ratio affects the money supply in a country.
Demand deposit = the portion (expressed as a percent) of depositors' balances banks must have on hand as cash. This is a requirement determined by the country's central bank, which in the U.S. is the Federal Reserve. The reserve ratio affects the money supply in a country.
hold against (phrasal verb) = have a grudge against someone, or little respect
hold something against someone
to have a bad opinion about someone because of something they did. I understand that your car isn't working, but please don't hold it against me personally? I didn't build your car.
I do not know what manner of grievance you hold against my good friend here, nor neither do I care.
to HOLD something against someone сърдя се make angry, be angry with, at, about
It is a sad sight to see this very fine pass, which my own Company here could hold against an army, and yet to ride through it with as little profit as though it were the lane from my kennels to the Avon.
Think badly of someone because of some fault or occurrence. For example, Even if you're late, I won't hold it against you, or She backed right into his new car, so he's bound to hold it against her. Also see bear a grudge.
bear a grudge
Also, have or hold a grudge. Maintain resentment or anger against someone for a past offense. For example, They held up my claim for months, but I won't bear a grudge against them, or His grandfather was always one to hold a grudge.
He took a handkerchief from his pocket to hold against his cheek.
One more thing for you to hold against me.
Their tails wiggle furiously like suckling piglets in their effort to hold against a current many times bigger than them.