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Thread: Hard or hardly

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    The French is offline Senior Member
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    Question Hard or hardly

    Hello, I am 'The French',

    I saw in a grammar rule for adverb in English, that the adverb for the word 'hard' is the same as the adjective hard.

    Sometimes, people use hard or hardly for the adverb, but my question is, are the both correct ?

    Thank.

  2. #2
    svartnik is offline Banned
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    Default Re: Hard or hardly

    Quote Originally Posted by The French View Post
    Hello, I am 'The French',

    I saw in a grammar rule for adverb in English, that the adverb for the word 'hard' is the same as the adjective hard.

    Sometimes, people use hard or hardly for the adverb, but my question is, are the both correct ?

    Thank.
    Hard can be either an adjective or an adverb:
    It was a hard hit. (adjective)
    The champion hit hard. (adverb)
    Either way hard implies putting effort into the task.
    Adverbial use of hard is often associated with verbs of
    action, and forms compounds with them, as in
    hard-earned, hard-fought, hard-won, hard-working. In
    this form hard is a zero adverb (see under that
    heading).
    Hardly is always an adverb. It no longer carries the
    sense of the adjective hard, but means “scarcely,
    almost not,” as in:
    They could hardly see through the smoke.
    Grammars and usage manuals sometimes refer to it
    as a negative adverb, although it differs from not in
    being a relative rather than an absolute negative. Not
    and hardly contradict each other in very colloquial
    expressions such as “He can’t hardly walk,” though
    not as a case of double negative, as is sometimes said.
    (See further under double negatives.)
    Because hardly expresses a relative degree or state,
    it is quite often followed by the comparative
    conjunction than:
    Hardly had they gone than we wished them back
    again.
    The use of than after hardly was often censured by
    C20 commentators on usage, taking their cue from
    Fowler (1926) who amplified a query about it in the
    Oxford Dictionary (1884–1928). The critics argue that a
    time conjunction (when) is the proper connecter after
    hardly, even though it would sit awkwardly in the
    sentence above. Alternatively, they suggest that the
    comparative element should be explicit, and that
    hardly should be replaced by “no sooner”:
    No sooner had they gone than we wished them
    back again.
    Doubts about the construction hardly . . . than may
    well have arisen in C19 because both words were
    developing new roles: hardly as a special kind of
    negative, and than as a conjunction when there was
    no explicit comparison (see further under than). The
    construction may have sounded unidiomatic earlier
    on. But Fowler himself acknowledged that it was quite
    common, and by now it’s thoroughly established in
    ordinary usage. It need raise no eyebrows if it appears
    in writing.
    Note that the construction scarcely . . . than than has
    been subject to the same censure as hardly . . . than,
    with the same suggested alternatives: “no sooner” (for
    scarcely) and “when” (for than). But there’s no reason
    to use alternatives if they sit awkwardly or alter the
    meaning. Scarcely . . . than has been in use almost as
    long as hardly . . . than.

    Peters - The Cambridge Guide to English Usage

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    Default Re: Hard or hardly



    Look at these examples:

    Jane works hard

    Jane hardly works

    They have two different meanings

    bearing in mind that hard is an adjective while hardly is an adverb, can you guess their meanings ?

    Hard can also be an adverb as Mr. svartnik just explained


    More examples:

    My friend Bob had had a hard life.

    It was a very hard exam

    they hardly know each other

    There is hardly any milk left






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    The French is offline Senior Member
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    Default Re: Hard or hardly

    Hello, thank for this article.
    I made one quizz on this site, and I mistake on this sentence:

    He's is really lazy and hardly tries. (I answered hard, but when I click on the button summit, the result is hardly).

    I don't understand the meaning of the end of the sentence. What do you think about the use of hardly in this phrase.

    Thank.

  5. #5
    bhaisahab's Avatar
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    Default Re: Hard or hardly

    Quote Originally Posted by The French View Post
    Hello, thank for this article.
    I made one quizz on this site, and I mistake on this sentence:

    He's is really lazy and hardly tries. (I answered hard, but when I click on the button summit, the result is hardly).

    I don't understand the meaning of the end of the sentence. What do you think about the use of hardly in this phrase.

    Thank.
    In this sentence 'hardly' means that he doesn't really try because he is lazy. If you use 'hard', firstly the construction is wrong 'he hard tries', it should be 'he tries hard'. Secondly 'he tries hard' has the opposite meaning to 'he hardly tries'.

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    The French is offline Senior Member
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    Default Re: Hard or hardly

    Hello, teacher,

    I understand the construction about 'subject+ verb+ adverb' (he tries hard), but you explain the sense of this sentence and I am still in the fog.

    It's hardly one adjective or an adverd ?

    We have two verbs is and try, therefore two clauses but grammatically, what is the use of 'hardly tries'.

    thank.

  7. #7
    svartnik is offline Banned
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    Default Re: Hard or hardly

    Quote Originally Posted by The French View Post

    It's hardly one adjective or an adverd ?

    We have two verbs is and try, therefore two clauses but grammatically, what is the use of 'hardly tries'.

    thank.
    Quote Originally Posted by svartnik View Post
    Hardly is always an adverb. It no longer carries the
    sense of the adjective hard, but means “scarcely,
    almost not,”

    Peters - The Cambridge Guide to English Usage
    .

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    The French is offline Senior Member
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    Default Re: Hard or hardly

    Hello Svartnick, sorry I miss this part.

    Now, it's alright. Instead of the word therefore can I put 'so'?

    Thank and have a nice day.

  9. #9
    svartnik is offline Banned
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    Default Re: Hard or hardly

    Quote Originally Posted by The French View Post
    Instead of the word therefore can I put 'so'?
    Hello,

    Please do not. 'so' and 'therefore' mean the same thing.

    In "Help me understand this sentence," how many verbs and how many clauses are? 2:1, respectively. That is why I crossed out therefore.

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