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  1. #1
    svartnik is offline Banned
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    Default verb complementation

    Hello,

    They were under suspicion. (=suspicious)

    The bolded part, is it an obligatory adverbial or a pred adj, IYO. Why?

    ----
    We married young. (=? when we were young)
    Is married a copula? And young describes we? IMO not.

    We married young. --> complement?

    --> Is young an ellipted adverbial clause?

    --
    I jumped 10 feet.

    What is the function of 10 feet in the sentence? IMO an adverb.

  2. #2
    engee30's Avatar
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    Default Re: verb complementation

    Quote Originally Posted by svartnik View Post
    We married young. (=? when we were young)
    Is married a copula? And young describes we? IMO not. In my opinion, yes.

    We married young. --> complement? Oh yes, it is a complement.

    --> Is young an ellipted adverbial clause? I guess so
    We married when we were young. [intransitive verb + adverbial clause]
    We married young. [copula verb + complement]

  3. #3
    engee30's Avatar
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    Default Re: verb complementation

    Quote Originally Posted by svartnik View Post
    I jumped 10 feet.

    What is the function of 10 feet in the sentence? IMO an adverb.
    Well, the verb jump is transitive here, so the 10 feet phrase is a noun phrase, being the direct object of the verb.

    That's what I think.

  4. #4
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    Default Re: verb complementation

    Quote Originally Posted by svartnik View Post
    Hello,

    They were under suspicion. (=suspicious)

    The bolded part, is it an obligatory adverbial or a pred adj, IYO. Why?
    In form, under suspicion is obviously a prepositional phrase. And since the main verb is a copula, under suspicion is the complement to the verb, which is normally obligatory.

  5. #5
    svartnik is offline Banned
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    Default Re: verb complementation



    Thanks, eng.

    If 'married' is a copula, how do you account for this?

    We married young
    As far as I know, what follows a copula is an obligatorily present fragment of a sentence.

    ---
    I jumped 10 feet.

    This is how I would elicit the verb complement:

    How far did he jump? That "how', does it not imply there is something adverbial to the complement?
    ------
    They were under suspicion.

    Where were they?
    What were they? under suspicion suspicious (=under suspicion)

    The function of the PP is to describe the subject --> adj.

    But then, 'under suspicion' expresses a metaphorical space.

  6. #6
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    Default Re: verb complementation

    Quote Originally Posted by svartnik View Post
    Hello,

    They were under suspicion. (=suspicious)
    Be aware that "suspicious" is used of two parties. It's almost a contranym/auto-antonym.
    The people under suspicion are suspicious.
    But the person who has them "under suspicion" is also suspicious (of them).

  7. #7
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    Default Re: verb complementation

    Quote Originally Posted by svartnik View Post
    They were under suspicion.

    Where were they?
    What were they? under suspicion suspicious (=under suspicion)

    The function of the PP is to describe the subject --> adj.

    But then, 'under suspicion' expresses a metaphorical space.
    It does express a metaphorical extension of space, under suspicion. But in this case, the prepositional phrase at issue is semantically similar to a noun phrase functioning as complement, They were suspects.
    True obligatory adverbials can be used with other verbs, being semantically and logically applicable; besides, other copula verbs can take the metaphorical adverbial expressions easily, unlike verbs other than copulas:

    They were under suspicion. [complementation]
    They appeared under suspecion. [complementation]
    They put the bin under suspicion. [obligatory adverbial used illogically]

    Quote Originally Posted by svartnik View Post
    If 'married' is a copula, how do you account for this?

    We married young.
    As far as I know, what follows a copula is an obligatorily present fragment of a sentence.
    Exactly. If the verb used is a copula, you need obligatory complementation. If it's not, obviously the verb is not a copula any longer, and any element following the verb is optional, except for transitive verbs of course:

    We married. [intransitive verb; no object needed; all we know is that they married]
    We married when we were young. [intransitive verb; optional adverbial clause telling us more about the subject]
    We married at the age of 21. [the same as the one above]
    She married a Frenchman. [transitive verb; obligatory direct object; without the a Frenchman element, the verb turns into an intransitive verb]]
    We married young. [copula verb; obligatory complementation; without the young element, the verb turns into an intransitive verb]

    Quote Originally Posted by svartnik View Post
    I jumped 10 feet.

    This is how I would elicit the verb complement:

    How far did he jump? That "how', does it not imply there is something adverbial to the complement?
    Well, I'll be honest with you - this one is the least clear-cut as to the distinction between adverbial and direct object. So I reckon your point on this could as well be pertinent.

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    svartnik is offline Banned
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    Default Re: verb complementation

    Quote Originally Posted by engee30 View Post
    If the verb used is a copula, you need obligatory complementation.
    With verbs that have copular and I or/and T uses like 'to marry', the complementation determines the verb class. If the verb is complemented with a subject complement (obligatory with copula uses) or an adverb complement (obligatory with copula uses), we have a copula as the main verb. If the verb is complemented with an Od (obligatory with T uses), we have a transitive verb. Finally, if the verb is not complemented but is followed by an optional adverbial element, the verb has I use.
    It is the complements that determine the verb class and not the reverse, IMO. With the verb 'to marry', we can't say, can we, that the verb is a copula, so it has to be complemented. First comes the complementation which determines the verb class.
    In light of this, the choice is ours to decide whether we want to complement the verb or not. We have no obligations.

    Similarly, we have no obligation to attach the word to the tail end of the sentence in

    We married young.

    'married' is used as a copula here, because it is complemented by an adjective that describes the referent of 'we'. The copula status comes from the complementation and not the complementation comes from the copula status.
    We can wipe away 'young', in which case the verb shifts verb class from M to I.

    We married young = we were young when we married; young describes 'we' -- predicate adjective
    We married young =/≠ We married (when we were) young; 'young' describes the time at which we got married (at the time when we were young), thus modifies the verb 'married' -- temporal adverbial optional

  9. #9
    orangutan is offline Member
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    Default Re: verb complementation

    It seems to me that "young" in this example is what is called a "depictive secondary predicate". That is, an item that is predicated of the subject (or sometimes object, though not applicable here*) of an already complete clause, providing further information about their state (hence "depictive"). Thus I would not analyze "married" in this case as a copula - which normally mediates the main predication of a clause, and thus, as you said earlier, its complement is obligatory.

    There is some debate as to whether these "depictives" are adjuncts or optional complements, which I am not qualified to go into.

    * example: "she married him young" (which one was young?). Or "she ate her steak raw".

  10. #10
    svartnik is offline Banned
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    Default Re: verb complementation

    Quote Originally Posted by orangutan View Post

    * example: "she married him young" (which one was young?)

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