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  1. #1
    digicult is offline Newbie
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    Default -ing and -ed forms

    Hi everyone. I'm a native English speaker doing language exchange with a Japanese student. I'm having trouble explaining to her some things that are second nature to me.

    1. Batteries were included when I bought the camera
    2. Batteries were includes (x)
    3. Batteries were including (x)
    4. Batteries are included (why is "included" in the past tense?)
    5. There were 4 people including me
    6. They included me in their discussion.

    Why are 2 and 3 wrong? How do I explain the difference between 5 and 6?

    Another thing that I can't figure out:
    1. I'm going home
    2. I'm going to home (x)
    3. I'm going to work
    4. I'm going to overseas (x)
    5. I'm going to fishing (x)
    6. I'm going to Europe

    It seems that for a specific location, you use "going to," but then why does "going to home" sound so unnatural? And for a verb you use "going (action)ing."
    How can I better explain this?

    Thanks,
    Michael

  2. #2
    Soup's Avatar
    Soup is offline VIP Member
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    Default Re: -ing and -ed forms

    Hello Michael

    1. Batteries were included when I bought the camera.
    Active voice:
    The manufacturer included batteries.

    Passive voice:
    Batteries were included (by the manufacturer).
    2. Batteries were includes (x)
    3. Batteries were including (x)
    4. Batteries are included (why is "included" in the past tense?)
    Passive verb forms
    BE + past participle
    is included
    are included
    was included
    were included

    were includes
    were including
    5. There were 4 people including me
    6. They included me in their discussion.
    The verbs are Simple Past were and Simple Past included. Neither are in passive voice. Here's example 6. in passive form:

    6. They included me. (Active)
    6. I was included. (Passive)


    Example 5. doesn't house a verb that can be put in passive voice. The sentence is an example of a there-expletive construct: the subject of the sentence is a semantically empty word, there. The true subject, the one that undergoes the meaning expressed by the verb, comes after the verb:


    5a. There were four people (present at the meeting) including me.
    5b.
    Four people were present at the meeting, including me.

    The true subject is four people. Its verb were is Simple Past
    . We know this because there isn't a participle present. Compare:

    PAST TENSE

    Active voice:
    Four people were present at the meeting.
    Passive voice: Four people were presented awards at the meeting (by the committee).
    ___________________________________

    To is a preposition meaning towards. Prepositions are not compatible with adverbs:


    1. I'm going home. <adverb>
    2a. I'm going to home <preposition + adverb>
    2b.I'm going to my home. <preposition + noun>

    4a. I'm going to overseas. <preposition + adverb>
    4b. I'm going abroad. <preposition + adverb>

  3. #3
    Soup's Avatar
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    Default Re: -ing and -ed forms

    Furthermore,

    3. I'm going to work. <preposition + noun/place>

    5a. I'm going to fishing. <preposition + non-place>
    5b. I'm going to the fishing hole. <preposition + noun/place>
    5c. I'm going fishing. <functions adverbially; i.e., fishing answers the question, Where are you going?

    6. I'm going to Europe. <preposition + noun/place>

  4. #4
    digicult is offline Newbie
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    Default Re: -ing and -ed forms

    Hi Soup,

    Thanks for the answers, that really clears it up.
    I never understood the inner workings of the grammar involved until now.

    Michael

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