1. Batteries were included when I bought the camera.
Active voice:2. Batteries were includes (x)
The manufacturer included batteries.
Batteries were included (by the manufacturer).
3. Batteries were including (x)
4. Batteries are included (why is "included" in the past tense?)
Passive verb forms5. There were 4 people including me
BE + past participle
6. They included me in their discussion.
The verbs are Simple Past were and Simple Past included. Neither are in passive voice. Here's example 6. in passive form:___________________________________
6. They included me. (Active)
6. I was included. (Passive)
Example 5. doesn't house a verb that can be put in passive voice. The sentence is an example of a there-expletive construct: the subject of the sentence is a semantically empty word, there. The true subject, the one that undergoes the meaning expressed by the verb, comes after the verb:
5a. There were four people (present at the meeting) including me.
5b. Four people were present at the meeting, including me.
The true subject is four people. Its verb were is Simple Past. We know this because there isn't a participle present. Compare:
Active voice: Four people were present at the meeting.
Passive voice: Four people were presented awards at the meeting (by the committee).
To is a preposition meaning towards. Prepositions are not compatible with adverbs:
1. I'm going home. <adverb>
2a. I'm going to home <preposition + adverb>
2b.I'm going to my home. <preposition + noun>
4a. I'm going to overseas. <preposition + adverb>
4b. I'm going abroad. <preposition + adverb>