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Thread: Must VS Have to

  1. #1
    hela is offline Senior Member
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    Default Must VS Have to

    Dear teachers,

    - What is the difference between HAVE TO and MUST?

    - Could HAVE TO express a greater certainty from the speaker than MUST?

    1) a) There HAS (got) TO BE a mistake.

    b) There MUST BE a mistake.


    2a) My friend MUST BE ill = Present; strong deduction: I am sure he is ill?
    b) My friend HAS TO BE ill = Present; It’s more certain than with must ?

    c) My friend HAD TO BE ill = Past; expresses a certainty?
    d) My friend MUST HAVE BEEN ill. = Past: expresses a certain deduction ?

    e) My friend OUGHT TO BE ill. (correct ? ) = Present : strong assumption ?
    f) My friend SHOULD BE ill. (incorrect ?) = Present : weaker expectation / assumption
    than “ought to” ?

    - What’s the difference between deduction / expectation / assumption ?

    Thank you in advance for your help.
    Hela

  2. #2
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    Default Re: Must VS Have to

    Quote Originally Posted by hela
    Dear teachers,

    - What is the difference between HAVE TO and MUST?

    - Could HAVE TO express a greater certainty from the speaker than MUST?

    1) a) There HAS (got) TO BE a mistake.

    b) There MUST BE a mistake.


    2a) My friend MUST BE ill = Present; strong deduction: I am sure he is ill?
    b) My friend HAS TO BE ill = Present; It’s more certain than with must ?

    c) My friend HAD TO BE ill = Past; expresses a certainty?
    d) My friend MUST HAVE BEEN ill. = Past: expresses a certain deduction ?

    e) My friend OUGHT TO BE ill. (correct ? ) = Present : strong assumption ?
    f) My friend SHOULD BE ill. (incorrect ?) = Present : weaker expectation / assumption
    than “ought to” ?

    - What’s the difference between deduction / expectation / assumption ?

    Thank you in advance for your help.
    Hela

    Must to is used when you have the obligation coming from yourself, and have to when there is something external that obliges you to do something.

    I must stop smoking once for all.

    I have to abide by the rules of this forum.


    One important difference to take into account is that "must not/ mustn't" does not mean that you don't have an obligation but that you are forbidden to do something (prohibition)

    You must not smoke in here. It is forbidden.

    I have not to do that homework today. I can do it tomorrow.



    The question about "deduction"

    Must: It is used mostly to express the conclusion that something is certain. This is used in British English.

    Have to: Used in American English

    You must be Anna's sister -you look just like her.

    You have to be joking! (AmE) / You must be joking! (BrE)


    In the past tense you can only use MUST

    I hear you've been to Patagonia. That must have been interesting. (NOT)
    "that has to have been interesting"



    Hope this helps! Maeve

  3. #3
    hela is offline Senior Member
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    Default Re: Must VS Have to

    Yes it does, thanks Maeve!

    Hela

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