Thank you very much for giving prompt replies to my questions.
I've tried so hard to search and find those definitions for a long time before finding this forum. It is a great forum with very kind and perfect teachers and experts. I hope to get more answers from you.
One of the next questions is:
What is the difference between:
1. linguistic competence and literacy competence (I know vaguely but I would like to have the definition of both of them :D )
2. empirical research and action research
in term of language learning.
Thank you very much and best regards.
It would seem that empirical research is research originating in or based on observation or experience. I don't know what action research is, but I can make an educated guess about it if you can supply some context with that phrase.
From the website: "Action research is inquiry or research in the context of focused efforts to improve the quality of an organization and its performance. It typically is designed and conducted by practitioners who analyze the data to improve their own practice. Action research can be done by individuals or by teams of colleagues. The team approach is called collaborative inquiry."