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  1. #1
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    Default present tense referring to future after conjunctions

    Hi,

    Certain verbs can be used in present tense to show a scheduled future event. The following sentences can be seen in grammar books.

    The bus leaves next Monday.
    School starts next month.

    Other than this, where else is present tense used to express futurity?

    I must keep it a secret until he gives me further instruction.
    When the bus leaves, you will be in trouble.

    Are the verbs after "until" and "when" ie. "gives" and "leaves" legitimately expressing futurity? I don't think I have seen any grammar book stating this explicitly but it's undeniable that the present tense here seems to express the future too. Thanks.

  2. #2
    Kondorosi is offline Banned
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    Default Re: present tense referring to future after conjunctions

    VPs with "legitime" present form and "legitime" future reference:

    1. be going to - The general meaning of the verb phrase is future fulfilment of the present. We can further distinguish two specific meanings. The first, future fulfilment of a present intention, is chiefly associated with personal subjects and agentive verbs:

    I am going to explain this to you.

    The other meaning, future result of a present cause, is found with both personal and non-personal subjects:

    If I explain this to you properly, you are going to get the grasp of things.
    It is going to rain.

    2. present progressive - The general meaning of the present progressive is future arising from present arrangement, plan, or programme:

    The match is starting at 20:45.

    3. The future use of the simple present is frequent only in subordinate clauses:

    What will you do if I do not come?

    In main clauses, the future use represents a marked future of unusual certainty, attributing to the future the degree of certainty one normally associates with the present and the past.

    The present tense is used for statements about the calendar:

    Tomorrow is the 1st of June.

    Also to describe immutable events:

    At this altitude, on 20 May, the sun sets at 20:45. Today it is 19 May. Tomorrow the sun sets at 20:45.

    Like the present progressive, it is used with certain dynamic, Transitional Verbs, to convey the meaning of plan or programme:

    The plane takes off/is taking off at 20:45.

    It is also used with stative verbs to convey plan or programme, but the progressive here is not possible:

    I am on a vacation next week.
    * I am being on a vacation next week.

    4. be (bound/likely) to - is used to refer to a future arrangement, a future requirement, and intention in the near future.
    ....

    Futurity is often indicated by modals other than will/shall.

    You may hurt yourself (in the future) if you do not watch out (in the future).
    Last edited by Kondorosi; 26-Nov-2009 at 09:23.

  3. #3
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    Default Re: present tense referring to future after conjunctions

    Quote Originally Posted by Kondorosi View Post
    VPs with "legitime" present form and "legitime" future reference:

    1. be going to - The general meaning of the verb phrase is future fulfilment of the present. We can further distinguish two specific meanings. The first, future fulfilment of a present intention, is chiefly associated with personal subjects and agentive verbs:

    I am going to explain this to you.

    The other meaning, future result of a present cause, is found with both personal and non-personal subjects:

    If I explain this to you properly, you are going to get the grasp of things.
    It is going to rain.

    2. present progressive - The general meaning of the present progressive is future arising from present arrangement, plan, or programme:

    The match is starting at 20:45.

    3. The future use of the simple present is frequent only in subordinate clauses:

    What will you do if I do not come?

    In main clauses, the future use represents a marked future of unusual certainty, attributing to the future the degree of certainty one normally associates with the present and the past.

    The present tense is used for statements about the calendar:

    Tomorrow is the 1st of June.

    Also to describe immutable events:

    At this altitude, on 20 May, the sun sets at 20:45. Today it is 19 May. Tomorrow the sun sets at 20:45.

    Like the present progressive, it is used with certain dynamic, Transitional Verbs, to convey the meaning of plan or programme:

    The plane takes off/is taking off at 20:45.

    It is also used with stative verbs to convey plan or programme, but the progressive here is not possible:

    I am on a vacation next week.
    * I am being on a vacation next week.

    4. be (bound/likely) to - is used to refer to a future arrangement, a future requirement, and intention in the near future.
    ....

    Futurity is often indicated by modals other than will/shall.

    You may hurt yourself (in the future) if you do not watch out (in the future).
    Thanks for the explanation. I do not get you at some parts; rather technical. Anyway, all I needed was a yes/no answer and I think I got it.

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