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  1. #21
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    Re: Winner and Loser

    Quote Originally Posted by RonBee View Post
    I had to look up interlanguage. Find a definition of it here: Interlanguage Definition | Definition of Interlanguage at Dictionary.com. (Chester_100 was, no doubt, using the second definition in his post.)

    Taghavi, I can tell that you are learning fast. I can also tell that you are impatient, but don't worry. You have come a long way, and I am sure you will achieve your goal of mastering English.
    I hope so. Thanks for your advice.
    Last edited by RonBee; 24-Dec-2009 at 19:54. Reason: fix link

  2. #22
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    Re: Winner and Loser

    Quote Originally Posted by chester_100 View Post
    How will it be decoded?

    Take a look at the following sentences:

    • He drank the bottle. [Did he kill himself by doing so? No! He actually drank the liquid in the bottle]
    • He reads Shakespeare. [Is it really possible to read Shakespeare? No! He is not a book; in reality, a copy of one of his masterpieces is referred to]
    • The world will know that… . [The world doesn’t possess any cognitive abilities that may enable it to understand or hold information. Actually, people will know…. ]
    • He hates the crown. [Does a person really hate a crown?Maybe! But what if it’s used to refer to a person, maybe a monarch]

    What is this literary device called? Metonymy


    Last edited by RonBee; 24-Dec-2009 at 19:59. Reason: fix quote

  3. #23
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    Re: Winner and Loser

    -Do you mean Idiosyncrasy?
    - What's the meaning of "ham paalaky"?
    -There is more to the problem than meets the eye:
    "sakhtaraz une ke fekresho mikardam ya mikardi".

  4. #24
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    Smile Re: Winner and Loser

    Quote Originally Posted by RonBee View Post
    I had to look up interlanguage. Find a definition of it here: Interlanguage Definition | Definition of Interlanguage at Dictionary.com. (Chester_100 was, no doubt, using the second definition in his post.)


    That’s right RonBee. The term seems to have been coined by Selinker. Anyway, Selinker attempted to prove that there’s phenomenon called “fossilization” as a “latent psychological structure” and is represented by “backsliding” under certain circumstances.

  5. #25
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    Post Re: Winner and Loser

    What is this literary device called? Metonymy



    Quote Originally Posted by taghavi View Post

    -Do you mean Idiosyncrasy?
    Positive!

    - What's the meaning of "ham paalaky"?

    ham paalaky: do tan ke daraye afkaar va aghayede moshabehand; joor, monaseb. (Dehkhoda dictionary)

    Crony makes a perfect equivalent for the above-mentioned word, but I can safely tell you that you may never find it in bilingual dictionaries, if you use any. That’s my personal opinion. The two words have the same cultural and stylistic significance.

    When you find such a strong concordance between two words belonging to two different languages, you can be sure that the words rouse some rather equal psychological response in users of the languages in question. Now, let’s turn some of your story into Farsi to predict the Iranian reader’s reaction:

    A turtle, a snail and a tiger have been their cronies for a long time; however, the turtle and the snail have to be following the tiger.

    Ek lakposht, halazoon, va ek babr modatha ham paakaly-e-shaan boode-and; agar-che lakposht va halazoon hamishe bayad donbaale-roye babr bashand.



    -There is more to the problem than meets the eye:
    "sakhtaraz une ke fekresho mikardam ya mikardi".

    This is acceptable, but not an idiom. Apparently, you didn’t find any good idioms with the same value or significance. That’s ok.
    It should be noted that the grammatical structure of your sentence is not, according to some experts, appropriate in Farsi.
    Do you find not an extraordinary similarity between this structure and its English equal?
    The answer is categorically “yes”. We can safely say that it might have entered Farsi through word-for-word translations of so-called translators.

    - How can we make it better?

    Just change the structure! Try to compensate by using another literary device:

    - pichidegi-e mas’le az anche ke be chashm miaayad/ mikhorad bishtar ast. (the bold chunk is an idiom, isn’t it?).
    - in mas’le az layehaye (naa peidai-ye) bishtari barkhordar ast. (it’s a metaphoric expression: layer for value).
    - in mas’le omghe bishtari darad. (it’s a metaphoric expression: depth for value or complexity).
    Ch




  6. #26
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    Re: Winner and Loser

    Thank you for your reply.

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