A verb can have a present participle form and a past participle form.
A present participle can have three functions in sentences. It can be component of multipart verb , or it can function as adjective or noun. A past participle can be component of a multipart verb and can function as adjective.
Here are some examples of past and present participles functioning as adjective to modify nouns or pronouns.
You can see his bruised face, broken arm, and bleeding knees as a result of that accident.
That's an interesting book.
That tree is a weeping willow.
Similarly a participle phrase is an adjective phrase that starts with a participle. It usually follows the noun (or pronoun) which it modifies.
Is that John running for the bus? ( Present participle phrase)
We must raise funds to replace the window broken last week in the storm. (past participle phrase)
Whenever a present participle functions as a noun, we call it a gerund. So a gerund can be the subjects, direct objects, indirect objects, objects of prepositions, and subject complements in sentence
Take a look at these examples:
Walking is a good exercise.
Walking=subject of the sentence’
Mary hates cooking.
Cooking = the direct object of the verb hates.
We gave jumping a chance.
jumping = indirect object of the verb gave.
Similarly a gerund phrase begins with a gerund and might include other modifiers and/or objects and functions as subjects, subject complements, or objects in the sentence. See these examples
Eating ice cream on a windy day can be a messy experience.
Eating ice cream on a windy day = subject of the verb can be.
Wild food adventures require getting your hair cut to a short length.
Getting your hair cut to a short = direct object of the verb require.
But be careful, Gerund and present participle phrases are easy to confuse because they both begin with an ing word. The difference is that a gerund phrase will always function as a noun while a present participle phrase describes another word in the sentence.