1- It's hard to say- is there another person in the room? If she's alone, then I don't see why the word 'fellow' is used.
2 Hardy's opening historical allusion to the fierce mediaeval battles of Senlac [Hastings] and Crecy (in which archery played a significant part) contrasts the indifferent antagonism of nature, epitomized by the "level rain-storm," with the deliberate and intentional inhumanity of man towards man. (http://www.victorianweb.org/authors/hardy/pva51.html)
3 - get a living- earn a living
4- Belshazzar (bĕlshăz'ər) , according to the Bible, son of Nebuchadnezzar and last king of Babylon. The Book of Daniel relates that, at his feast, handwriting appeared on the wall. Daniel interpreted it as a prophecy of doom; that night Babylonia fell to the otherwise unknown Darius the Mede. (dictionary)
5- More concentrated in terms of numbers?? I'm guessing here- it could mean 'more stupid', but I am really not sure
6- Chok must be a dialect term, but I can't find the exact meaning. It's some kind of exclamation like 'dash it all'. I imagine it's not very strong because of the person he's talking to.