NOT A TEACHER
You have asked a HUGE (super big) question that needs
hours and hours of teaching.
(1) Let me answer your last question. Usually, if you use some
absolute constructions in speech, your friends will
laugh and think you are crazy or strange!!!
(2) The term "absolute construction" covers many kinds of
sentences. It is impossible to explain all of them in one post.
(3) I have bad news: different books use different terms.
But I think that it is accurate to tell you these terms mean
the same thing: absolute phrase, absolute clause, nominative
absolute. It does not matter what you call it so long as you
(4) My favorite book uses "absolute phrase," so that's what I will call
them. (Remember: absolute phrases are one kind of absolute
(a) An absolute phrase modifies the whole sentence. That is, it refers
to the whole sentence.
(b) One popular kind uses a noun + participle:
The teacher (noun) + being (participle) + ill, we went home.
That is a short, elegant way to say:
Because the teacher was ill, we went home.
As you can see, you would almost never use that kind of absolute
phrase in conversation. Your friends would laugh at you. But it is
great for writing. (In some languages, the difference between speaking
it and writing it is HUGE. In English, speaking and writing are usually
about the same, but absolute phrases remind us that sometimes there
are sentences that you use only in writing.)
(c) Another kind of absolute phrase is noun + adjective:
She begins to scream, her face (noun) + white (adjective) + with terror.
As you can see, this is a short, elegant way to write (NOT say!!)
Her face is white with terror when she begins to scream.
I am sure that you must have many more questions about
absolute constructions. I respectfully suggest that you
study it in a good book and then post questions here about
something that you did not understand in your book. Don't
forget that the World Wide Web also has lots of results.