Native speakers think in terms of the verb's semantic structure or how many arguments/objects it requires. Everything else, except the subject, is just added information. For example,
Max gave me a book. (Ditransitive: Direct Object + Indirect Object)
=> The reader and/or listener gets to 'give' then automatically looks for two objects.
The named the dog "Spot". (Direct Object + Object Complement)
=> The reader and/or listener gets to "named" and automatically looks for the direct object and its complement.
enable, verb, someone + to do something
'formality' plays an active role in many languages but its role isn't all that active in English, so try not to use it as a means to justify why this or that word, phrase or sentence doesn't seem to fit the frame, sort to speak.'What caused you to be ill?' and 'What caused you being ill' are not so different, are they? Perhaps their differences lie only in formality?
 What caused you to be(come) ill?
Verb: cause, someone/something (to do/be . . .) The 'to do/be' part is optional, as in :
 *What caused you being ill? (ungrammatical)
 What caused your illness?