What is the English word for the different forms that nouns can take depending on their funtion? In Danish the different groups are called "kasus" and the only one I remember is called "akkusativ."
And does this apply to English at all? In Danish the form of a noun is the same whether it is the subject or object and since this seems to be the case in English as well, I was wondering if and how these groups would apply.
I am sure that the groups have other functions, but I only remember how, in Latin, they helped determine the function of nouns.
It is also possible that I am mixing things up completely and that my question makes no sense at all. In that case, I apologize in advance.
The word is 'case'.
As the only form of the noun recognisable by a 'case-ending' is the genitive (possessive) 's, we do not generally use the word 'case' in talking about English nouns.
We do have 'nominative' and 'accusative' forms of personal pronouns, such as I/me, they/them,etc, but we generally prefer the terms 'subject' and 'object' pronouns.
Unless they have learnt a language such as Latin or German at school, most English speakers do not understand such words as case (in this sense), declension. decline, nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, locative.