what are the differences between
A: Sorry for being late
B: Sorry for been late
"Sorry for being late" is a correct sentence.
"Sorry for been late" is not a correct sentence.
what are the other uses of being
.. this is a big question (and should therefore have a question mark) and I'll leave it for one of the grammar experts to try and provide a good answer. So I'll just say "sorry for being lazy". 8–)