In the Mulla Sadra school the humanity starts from very primary steps of body and continue to reach the complete pure soul. So the human is not merely a material system that consists of some substances with complicated relations between its parts but a substance that its weak steps is in the matter and its head is in the spirituality and immortality. According to Mulla Sadra , the soul as a single reality first appears as the body and finally becomes human soul witch again traverses many more stages of its development and reaches to a stage witch is spiritual and immortal (Akbarian,87).
the soul begins his journey from a primitive state of human and advanced state of matter and continue to a degree that became absolute and immaterial. the human soul in the first inception is physical and material similar to other specieses then becomes an abstract in essence not in functionality , then it becomes immaterial and separated from matter in essence and action (Al Shirazi, 1375, 290). this movement is not something independent from the substance of the man itself but he itself is motion and motion is essential for it. Substantial motion in the exact interpretation is something that is really in his deep essence is in an essential motion. Mulla Sadra believed that, the soul is corporeal when it comes into being. Also it is not a stationary and motionless substance, but a substance which, like time, is essentially and outcome of motion, and has motion in itself (Akbarian, 86).
Mulla Sadra had divided the human life into some parts. In this division man has two puberties. The first is the formal puberty that the body of man gains some special functionalities and faces with some fundamental changes in its body. In this stage he acquires the ability of reproduction. The second puberty is the spiritual puberty that is the real puberty of man. Many of people can not reach this stage and stay in a minimal intellectuality and humanity all of their life. But some of them can reach this puberty and will become divine soul. The start of the real puberty is about the age of fourty. “when the child come out of his mother's womb he is already same like the other animals to premature formal puberty , then he become human soul after that, albeit he has potenciality to live up to become divine mind, so if reached end of forty ,and is the time to spiritual puberty, then he will Become a soul if he has helped by the sanctity of the divine. So as long as the embryo is in the womb he already grow, he has animality potency; and if it gets out of his mother's womb before puberty is indeed an animal, and human in potency; and if it reaches the end of formal puberty he is already a man and angel in potency. (Al Shirazi, 1375, 291).
so you may ask that what is the difference between the animal and human? The difference is in potency. Albeit human in its early stages is matterial and then becomes animal but he has the potency of becoming intellectual human and the animal lakes this power. So the human nature is different from the animal nature. human nature is distinct from the animal nature in some view, then the end of the animal nature perfection is the first human nature because of the difference of natures and worlds.(Al Shirazi, 1360, 202).
The next issue is the creation and relation of soul and the body. Body is potentiality of human being and pure spirit is the extreme functionality of It and the aim of the human substantial motion. In the early stages of the human there is a body with vegetative life. When It become more powerful and gains enough functionality such that this functionality becomes the potentiality for having animal soul the god give it an animal soul and enters it into the animality stage. Next he continue to its substantial motion to such degree that it became eligible to obtain the human soul. In this stage he recieves the human soul from the transcendental sources. So the creation of the human depends on two factors, one is the enough potentiality in the material body and second is the perfectness of the transcendent cause.
The first cause of the universe that is “The Unit God” is perfect. So the real originating cause is present and perfect and so creation of human will became dependent on the potentiality of the recipient.
In the Mulla Sadra's school the creation of human depends on a real originating cause and a recipient cause.If we can prepare the matter and complete the recipient cause even in unusual way such as cloning methods and so on because of the perfection of originating cause, the creation of human can occur and necessarily will take place.
Finally we conclude that from perspective of Mulla Sadra's philosophy, human creation is not merely by regular ways of child birth and we can have humans with special methods of human cloning and other ways in laboratory. Although if we can create a body that have enough potentiality for being a human the human soul will be invested from the God. So the preparation is the action of material and humanistic works and influences ,but the creation and emanation is divine.
Morality and human cloning
if we study the moral implications of human cloning we will encounter two different views of the issue. The first is about this new man's moral treatments and responsibilities and the other is our moral responsibilities in dealing with this technology and its uses.
Since we proved previously that the humanity of this newly created man is completely similar to the others so we can conclude that this is really human and so he has moral responsibilities like other humans and has no difference in this aspect from others. But in the field of our moral responsibilities we will see some ethical relativity. In more exact words I can say that if we know that this is a normal method and the results is not different from other methods, so we will understand that this method in its essence is not bad and could be treated as a safe and promising method and so we will not have any worry about it from this view.
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