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  1. #1
    viriato is offline Newbie
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    Default irregolar verbs with past/participle with double form

    Hello,

    I personally think, that learning irregular verbs is the more difficult thing to a beginner.
    it is most like a medieval method of torture for the memory.
    I found more than 90 "irregular/regular" verbs which have more than one past or participle form.

    Could please, someone explain me, why have them both forms; an irregular and another regular?
    Should they be considered irregular or regular verbs or both?

    If this is an attempt to makes regular all of them, I completely agree on it.

    Here the list:

    bereave - bereaved/bereft - bereaved/bereft
    beseech - besought/beseeched - besought/beseeched
    bestrew - bestrewed - bestrewn/bestrewed
    alight - alighted/alit - alighted/alit
    bet - bet/betted - bet/betted
    broadcast - broadcast/broadcasted - broadcast/broadcasted
    burn - burned/burnt - burned/burnt
    bust - busted/bust - busted/bust
    chide - chided/chid - chided/chidden
    clothe - clothed/clad - clothed/clad
    daydream - daydreamed/daydreamt - daydreamed/daydreamt
    dight - dighted/dight - dighted/dight
    disprove - disproved - disproved/disproven
    dwell - dwelt/dwelled - dwelt/dwelled
    fit - fitted/fit - fitted/fit
    foreshow - foreshowed - foreshown/foreshowed
    gild - gilded/gilt - gilded/gilt
    hang (kill by hanging) - hanged/hung - hanged/hung
    heave - heaved/hove - heaved/hove
    hew - hewed - hewn/hewed
    input - input/inputted - input/inputted
    interweave - interwove/interweaved - interwoven/interweaved
    inweave - inwove/inweaved - inwoven/inweaved
    kneel - knelt/kneeled - knelt/kneeled
    knit - knitted/knit - knitted/knit
    lade - laded - laden/laded
    lean - leaned/leant - leaned/leant
    leap - leaped/leapt - leaped/leapt
    learn - learned/learnt - learned/learnt
    light - lit/lighted - lit/lighted
    mislearn - mislearned/mislearnt - mislearned/mislearnt
    misspell - misspelled/misspelt - misspelled/misspelt
    miswed - miswed/miswedded - miswed/miswedded
    mow - mowed - mowed/mown
    outleap - outleaped/outleapt - outleaped/outleapt
    output - output/outputted - output/outputted
    outshine - outshined/outshone - outshined/outshone
    outsmell - outsmelled/outsmelt - outsmelled/outsmelt
    overleap - overleaped/overleapt - overleaped/overleapt
    oversew - oversewed - oversewn/oversewed
    oversow - oversowed - oversown/oversowed
    overspill - overspilled/overspilt - overspilled/overspilt
    overstrew - overstrewed - overstrewn/overstrewed
    plead - pleaded/pled - pleaded/pled
    prove - proved - proven/proved
    quit - quit/quitted - quit/quitted
    rebroadcast - rebroadcast/rebroadcasted - rebroadcast/rebroadcasted
    refit - refitted/refit - refitted/refit
    reknit - reknitted/reknit - reknitted/reknit
    relearn - relearned/relearnt - relearned/relearnt
    relight - relit/relighted - relit/relighted
    resew - resewed - resewn/resewed
    retrofit - retrofitted/retrofit - retrofitted/retrofit
    rewake - rewoke/rewaked - rewaken/rewaked
    reweave - rewove/reweaved - rewoven/reweaved
    rewed - rewed/rewedded - rewed/rewedded
    rewet - rewet/rewetted - rewet/rewetted
    rive - rived - riven/rived
    saw - sawed - sawed/sawn
    self-sow - self-sowed - self-sown/self-sowed
    sew - sewed - sewn/sewed
    shave - shaved - shaved/shaven
    shear - sheared - sheared/shorn
    shine - shined/shone - shined/shone
    shit - shit/shat/shitted - shit/shat/shitted
    shoe - shoed/shod - shoed/shod
    show - showed - shown/showed
    slay (kill) - slew/slayed - slain/slayed
    slink - slinked/slunk - slinked/slunk
    smell - smelled/smelt - smelled/smelt
    sow - sowed - sown/sowed
    speed - sped/speeded - sped/speeded
    spell - spelled/spelt - spelled/spelt
    spill - spilled/spilt - spilled/spilt
    spoil - spoiled/spoilt - spoiled/spoilt
    stave - staved/stove - staved/stove
    strew - strewed - strewn/strewed
    strip - stripped/stript - stripped/stript
    strive - strove/strived - striven/strived
    sunburn - sunburned/sunburnt - sunburned/sunburnt
    swell - swelled - swollen/swelled
    thrive - thrived/throve - thrived/thriven
    unclothe - unclothed/unclad - unclothed/unclad
    unknit - unknitted/unknit - unknitted/unknit
    unlade - unladed - unladen/unladed
    unlearn - unlearned/unlearnt - unlearned/unlearnt
    unreeve - unreeved/unrove - unreeved/unrove
    unsew - unsewed - unsewn/unsewed
    unweave - unwove/unweaved - unwoven/unweaved
    wake - woke/waked - woken/waked
    weave - wove/weaved - woven/weaved
    wed - wed/wedded - wed/wedded
    wet - wet/wetted - wet/wetted
    Last edited by viriato; 29-Jan-2011 at 09:26.

  2. #2
    5jj's Avatar
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    Default Re: irregolar verbs with past/participle with double form

    Stage one

    Forget the folowing. If you know the base verb, you know the compound.

    bestrew - bestrewed - bestrewn/bestrewed
    alight - alighted/alit - alighted/alit
    broadcast - broadcast/broadcasted - broadcast/broadcasted
    daydream - daydreamed/daydreamt - daydreamed/daydreamt
    disprove - disproved - disproved/disproven
    foreshow - foreshowed - foreshown/foreshowed
    interweave - interwove/interweaved - interwoven/interweaved
    inweave - inwove/inweaved - inwoven/inweaved
    mislearn - mislearned/mislearnt - mislearned/mislearnt
    misspell - misspelled/misspelt - misspelled/misspelt
    miswed - miswed/miswedded - miswed/miswedded
    outleap - outleaped/outleapt - outleaped/outleapt
    outshine - outshined/outshone - outshined/outshone
    outsmell - outsmelled/outsmelt - outsmelled/outsmelt
    overleap - overleaped/overleapt - overleaped/overleapt
    oversew - oversewed - oversewn/oversewed
    oversow - oversowed - oversown/oversowed
    overspill - overspilled/overspilt - overspilled/overspilt
    overstrew - overstrewed - overstrewn/overstrewed
    rebroadcast - rebroadcast/rebroadcasted - rebroadcast/rebroadcasted
    refit - refitted/refit - refitted/refit
    reknit - reknitted/reknit - reknitted/reknit
    relearn - relearned/relearnt - relearned/relearnt
    relight - relit/relighted - relit/relighted
    resew - resewed - resewn/resewed
    retrofit - retrofitted/retrofit - retrofitted/retrofit
    rewake - rewoke/rewaked - rewaken/rewaked
    reweave - rewove/reweaved - rewoven/reweaved
    rewed - rewed/rewedded - rewed/rewedded
    rewet - rewet/rewetted - rewet/rewetted
    self-sow - self-sowed - self-sown/self-sowed
    sunburn - sunburned/sunburnt - sunburned/sunburnt
    unclothe - unclothed/unclad - unclothed/unclad
    unknit - unknitted/unknit - unknitted/unknit
    unlade - unladed - unladen/unladed
    unlearn - unlearned/unlearnt - unlearned/unlearnt
    unreeve - unreeved/unrove - unreeved/unrove
    unsew - unsewed - unsewn/unsewed
    unweave - unwove/unweaved - unwoven/unweaved

  3. #3
    5jj's Avatar
    5jj is offline VIP Member
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    Default Re: irregolar verbs with past/participle with double form

    Stage two

    Unless you are an advanced learner, forget the following. They are formal, rare or old-fashioned.

    bereave - bereaved/bereft - bereaved/bereft
    beseech - besought/beseeched - besought/beseeched
    chide - chided/chid - chided/chidden
    dight - dighted/dight - dighted/dight
    foreshow - foreshowed - foreshown/foreshowed
    gild - gilded/gilt - gilded/gilt
    hew - hewed - hewn/hewed
    inweave - inwove/inweaved - inwoven/inweaved
    lade - laded - laden/laded
    rive - rived - riven/rived
    saw - sawed - sawed/sawn
    shoe - shoed/shod - shoed/shod
    stave - staved/stove - staved/stove
    strew - strewed - strewn/strewed
    wed - wed/wedded - wed/wedded

  4. #4
    viriato is offline Newbie
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    Default Re: irregolar verbs with past/participle with double form

    Quote Originally Posted by fivejedjon View Post
    Stage two

    Unless you are an advanced learner, forget the following. They are formal, rare or old-fashioned.
    Thanks for your reply Fivejedjon,
    I see those verbs are not very used... (but there are yet a good number of them that we find every day.)
    In any way, the fact, those are old-fashioned or less used verbs, don't satisfy my
    curiosity about their double form).
    (Is it licit to use both forms? Should we consider them regular or irregular verbs?)

    bet - bet/betted - bet/betted
    burn - burned/burnt - burned/burnt
    bust - busted/bust - busted/bust
    clothe - clothed/clad - clothed/clad
    dwell - dwelt/dwelled - dwelt/dwelled
    fit - fitted/fit - fitted/fit
    hang (kill by hanging) - hanged/hung - hanged/hung
    heave - heaved/hove - heaved/hove
    input - input/inputted - input/inputted
    kneel - knelt/kneeled - knelt/kneeled
    knit - knitted/knit - knitted/knit
    lean - leaned/leant - leaned/leant
    leap - leaped/leapt - leaped/leapt
    learn - learned/learnt - learned/learnt
    light - lit/lighted - lit/lighted
    mow - mowed - mowed/mown
    output - output/outputted - output/outputted
    plead - pleaded/pled - pleaded/pled
    prove - proved - proven/proved
    quit - quit/quitted - quit/quitted
    sew - sewed - sewn/sewed
    shave - shaved - shaved/shaven
    shear - sheared - sheared/shorn
    shine - shined/shone - shined/shone
    shit - shit/shat/shitted - shit/shat/shitted
    show - showed - shown/showed
    slay (kill) - slew/slayed - slain/slayed
    slink - slinked/slunk - slinked/slunk
    smell - smelled/smelt - smelled/smelt
    sow - sowed - sown/sowed
    speed - sped/speeded - sped/speeded
    spell - spelled/spelt - spelled/spelt
    spill - spilled/spilt - spilled/spilt
    spoil - spoiled/spoilt - spoiled/spoilt
    strip - stripped/stript - stripped/stript
    strive - strove/strived - striven/strived
    swell - swelled - swollen/swelled
    thrive - thrived/throve - thrived/thriven
    wake - woke/waked - woken/waked
    weave - wove/weaved - woven/weaved
    wet - wet/wetted - wet/wetted

  5. #5
    viriato is offline Newbie
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    Default Re: irregolar verbs with past/participle with double form

    Quote Originally Posted by fivejedjon View Post
    Stage one

    Forget the folowing. If you know the base verb, you know the compound.
    Do you mean, that I can consider them regular verbs, by using its regular form?

  6. #6
    Dr. Jamshid Ibrahim is offline Senior Member
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    Default Re: irregolar verbs with past/participle with double form

    Indeed irregualr verbs are a remnant of the past and more difficult to learn. British English sticks to more traditional forms and is historically more loyal to tradition. American English often makes irregualr verbs regaulr by adding (ed) as in the the examples given.

    The number of irregular verbs is on the decrease although the most important of them "to be" and "to have" are the most irregular forms. An interesting question would be why these two verbs are so irregular in Germanic and Romance languages?

    However, the verb has the most dynamism than most other parts of speech because it mostly refers to movement. This might also explain why state (stative verbs) which are only used in the simple aspect are acquiring a dual function i.e. have a dynamic and stative sense as for example:
    The boss is nasty (permanently)
    The boss is being nasty this week (temporarily)

    Life is becoming more dynamic and the life-cycles shorter which might leave no room for irregualr verbs. In addition irrreguar verbs need a lot of power and energy go - went - gone) when compared to regualr, often of Romance origin and quieter verbs taking (ed) in the past and past participle. We need to save our energy in a more complicated and complex world or may be our sound producing tracts need more relaxation nowadays.
    Last edited by Dr. Jamshid Ibrahim; 29-Jan-2011 at 11:40.

  7. #7
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    Default Re: irregolar verbs with past/participle with double form

    Quote Originally Posted by viriato View Post
    .
    (is it licit to use both forms? Should we consider them regular or irregular verbs?)
    It depends.

    Some are different verbs, or are used in different ways. Examples include: hang/hanged/hanged and hang/hung/hung, bid/bid/bid and bid (or bade)/ bid (or bidden), cost/cost/cost and cost/costed/costed, lie/lay/lain and lie/lied/lied and lay/laid.laid, weave/weaved/weaved and weave/wove/woven, wind/winded/winded and wind/wound/wound/

    In some, the regular form is preferred in AmE, the irregular in BrE. Examples (with the irregular form) include: burn/burnt, dream/dreamt, dwell/dwelt, earnt/earnt/, kneel/knelt, lean/leant, leap/leapt, learn/learnt, smell/smelt, spell/spelt, spill/spilt/, spoil/spoilt.

    In some, the past simple and past participle forms are the same as the base forms in AmE; BrE prefers the regular form. Examples include: fit and knit.

    I'll stop there. I think the only guidance I can give is to follow the usage of the community in which you find yourself.

  8. #8
    viriato is offline Newbie
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    Default Re: irregolar verbs with past/participle with double form

    Quote Originally Posted by Dr. Jamshid Ibrahim View Post
    Indeed irregualr verbs are a remnant of the past and more difficult to learn. British English sticks to more traditional forms and is historically more loyal to tradition. American English often makes irregualr verbs regaulr by adding (ed) as in the the examples given.

    The number of irregular verbs is on the decrease although the most important of them "to be" and "to have" are the most irregular forms. An interesting question would be why these two verbs are so irregular in Germanic and Romance languages?

    However, the verb has the most dynamism than most other parts of speech because it mostly refers to movement. This might also explain why state (stative verbs) which are only used in the simple aspect are acquiring a dual function i.e. have a dynamic and stative sense as for example:
    The boss is nasty (permanently)
    The boss is being nasty this week (temporarily)

    Life is becoming more dynamic and the life-cycles shorter which might leave no room for irregular verbs. In addition irregular verbs need a lot of power and energy go - went - gone) when compared to regular, often of Romance origin and quieter verbs taking (ed) in the past and past participle. We need to save our energy in a more complicated and complex world or may be our sound producing tracts need more relaxation nowadays.
    Yes, in a perfect world, there are no room for the irregularities even talking about verbs.
    I hope your are right about the decreasing of irregular verbs, on the other hand it could not be in other way, because every new verb added to English (I suppose and I hope) follow the rules of regularity.

    These duality in some verbs seems to me like a tender to simplify things.
    For a beginner like me, some things are very confused.

    Take a look at this curiosity in the verb: "come":

    [COME / CAME / COME] - irregular
    [beCOME / beCAME / beCOME] - irregular
    [welCOME / welCOMEd / welCOMEd] - regular

  9. #9
    Dr. Jamshid Ibrahim is offline Senior Member
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    Default Re: irregolar verbs with past/participle with double form

    Quote Originally Posted by viriato View Post
    Take a look at this curiosity in the verb: "come":

    [COME / CAME / COME] - irregular
    [beCOME / beCAME / beCOME] - irregular
    [welCOME / welCOMEd / welCOMEd] - regular
    This is an interesting example of language behaviour. As you may know there is not always logic in language because language reflects human behaviour. still regularity and modelling is important in language to help memory and structure language. Lanuages are full of patterns but amidst such regularities, exceptions and irregularities become important because regularity creates language rules and language rules wih no exceptions make language behaviour predictable and boring. predictability is a death sentence.

  10. #10
    TheParser is offline VIP Member
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    Default Re: irregolar verbs with past/participle with double form

    ***** NOT A TEACHER *****


    Viriato,


    I know how you feel. You are a learner. You want definite "rules" to follow.



    (1) Unlike France or Spain, we here in the United States do not have an official

    academy to decide which past participle is "correct."

    (2) Therefore, we are usually guided by what good newspapers use or by

    books of English usage.

    (3) Some Americans, for example, follow the recommendations by Mr. Bryan A.

    Garner, who has written a book entitled A DICTIONARY OF MODERN AMERICAN

    USAGE.

    (a) For example, today I heard someone say "wetted." I was not sure if the

    "correct" past and past participle forms were "wet" or "wetted," so I turned to his book.

    Mr. Garner says "wet" is INFERIOR to "wetted." Therefore, whenever I need to say or

    write that word, I shall use "wetted." I have simply decided to accept his decision.

    That gives me peace of mind.

    (4) I suggest you do the same: find a source that you respect and follow its

    recommendations. Then you will feel better, too.

    BY THE WAY:

    Mr. Garner says "wet" is idiomatic (the way native speakers speak) in two

    exceptions:

    He wet his whistle with a couple of beers. ( = He satisfied his thirst.)

    Little Bobby has wet his bed again. (Of course, everyone understands what that means!!!)


    ***** NOT A TEACHER *****
    Last edited by TheParser; 03-Feb-2011 at 22:15.

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