1) "I tried talking to him but he won't listen." The meaning is - I tried talking to him but he didn't want to listen / didn't listen / was not listening. So if I understand correctly, here "won't" used as the Past Tense.
No. The meaning is: I tried talking to him but he does not want to listen/ refuses to listen. This general characteristic of his caused my attempt to fail in the past (and may cause any future attempts to fail).
We could also say: I tried talking to him but he wouldn't listen.
We are now restricting his refusal to listen to one past occasion.
A similar example is:
I wanted him to retire, but he is stubborn, and he refused. – General characteristic
I wanted him to retire, but he was stubborn, and he refused. Single past occasion