1. subject + intransitive verb:
2. subject + transitive verb + direct object:
They eat cake.
3a. subject + di-transitive verb + direct object + indirect object
They gave money to the charity.
3b. subject + di-transitive verb + indirect object + direct object
They gave the charity money.
4. subject + verb + direct object + object complement
They call him Mr Smith.
5. subject + linking verb + subject complement
They are teachers. ('teachers' is a noun, so it's called a predicate nominal)
They seem happy. ('happy' is an adjective, so it's called a predicate adjective)
They were upstairs. ('upstairs' is an adverb; it tells us "where")
6. Existential there + verb + subject + preposition of location
There is a cat on the table.
I believe those are all the basic patterns.