I was going through one letter and came across the following sentence.
Quote So, go on a shopping spree this festive season without having to worry about making payment. Unquote
Can you please tell me by giving examples - why having is used in these sentenses ?
[quote=rajan]"So, go on a shopping spree this festive season without having to worry about making payment."
"having to" is a form of "have to", a modal verb. It expresses a strong necessity:
EX: You have to do your homework.
EX: They had to leave early.
EX: We will have to wash the car.
"having to" takes the phrase "worry about making payment" as its object.
"without" is a preposition and it takes "having to worrying . . . " as its object. "having" functions as a nominal. It's either a partciple; i.e., "without (you) having to worry about making payments" or it functions as a verbal noun, a gerund.
Since modals are not all that necessary (i.e., they're like adverbs in that they contribute additional meaning to the verb), we can omit "having to", but we'd have to change "worry" into a noun, a gerund, because the preposition "without" requires a nominal object, a nominal:
. . . without having to worry about . . .
. . . without worrying about . . .
The thing about gerunds is that they are privy to both nonimal and verbal classes. That is take a verb, add -ing, and place it where the subject or objects go and you have a gerund.
EX: I don't like having to wash the dishes.
EX: I don't like washing the dishes.
Thanks for all your help.
Further I have one query.
"Having to" should be used where we have to show the necessity. Otherwise worring will work. am I right?
Right. "having to" is a modal verb that expresses, a strong necessity, even a sense of strong obligation. It contributes additional meaning to the verb it modifies. Take out the modal and "a strong necessity" is no longer expressed.
I thank you very much from my heart.
Originally Posted by Casiopea
You're most welcome, Rajan.