The next time you do it, you will be grounded.
Every time you do it, you will feel guilty.
This time, you are off the hook.
Q1: Are the red phrases NOUN PHRASES that act as ADVERBIAL?
Q2: If so, how do they act as conjunctions even though they are not (except the case of the third sentence)?
Thanks in advance.
However, in terms of higher-level syntactic function, the first two serve to introduce subordinate clauses, and as such could also be labelled phrasal conjunctions.
The third NP serves adverbially and is commonly termed an adverbial objective.