At the same time, computers steadily demonstrated abilities that previously were limited to humans; for example, they became serious opponents in chess. But these achievements came from precisely tailored programs. The new challenge was to see if human intelligence could be rooted in mental programs that carried out logical operations.
(Scientific American Mind; Volume 14, Number 1; Humbled by History)
Have I understood it correctly?
"...to see if human intelligence could be incorporated into/integrated into mental programs..."
That is, the challenge is to get human-like intelligence out of a program rather than putting it into a program.
If it came out of a program, the roots would be in the program.
Maybe both readings are just as likely.