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  1. #1
    Jadoon 84 is offline Member
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    Default infinitive & gerund

    1: I don't how and where to use simple infinitive in passive form i.e. to be studied, to be written, to be downloaded, to be shared to be informed, to be repaired etc. Please tell me the "situation or context" of its usage.

    2: Perfect infinitives i.e. to have written, to have downloaded, to have shared to informed etc. Please tell me the "situation or context" of its usage.


    3: Perfect passive infinitives i.e. to have been written, to have been downloaded, to have been shared to been informed etc. Please tell me the "situation or context" of its usage in passive form.

    4: How & when (situation & Context) to use passive simple gerund i.e. being watched, being smoked, being chatted, being written, being informed.

    5: Perfect Gerund i.e. Having watched, Having smoked, having chatted, having written, having informed, having told, having abused etc. Please tell me the "situation or context" of its usage.

    6: Perfect passive gerund: i.e. Having been watched, having been smoked, having been written, having been photographed, having been informed, having been cut, Having been bet etc. Please tell me the "situation or context" of its usage.

    Note: I searched too many websites but I was unable to clear my concept. So I wanna see your own answers.

    Abdul Basit
    Afghanistan.

  2. #2
    Jadoon 84 is offline Member
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    Default Re: infinitive & gerund

    No answer yet!!!

    Dear all I am waiting for your replies, kindly help me.


    Abdul Basit

  3. #3
    TheParser is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: infinitive & gerund

    ***** NOT A TEACHER *****


    Good morning, sir:

    (1) I have been a member for only two years, but I have learned something very important: we students will receive faster

    answers if we ask only one question in each post.

    (a) When answerers see very long posts, they may get "turned off" (discouraged).

    (b) They seem to like short, to-the-point questions.

    (2) I most respectfully suggest that you break up your post into several short posts. Then the answerers will probably be

    more eager to answer.

    (3) By the way, I notice that you wish to know "the situation or context" of passive use. I found this information that may interest

    you:

    Here are some of the reasons why we use the passive:

    (a) When it is "redundant" to name the agent: "Oranges are grown in California." It would sound "strange" to say "Farmers in California grow oranges." Of course, farmers grow the oranges. That is their job.

    (b) When we want to emphasize the result: "Six people were killed by the tornado." We want to emphasize the six deaths, not the fact that a tornado was responsible.

    (c) When you want to make your statement sound true, but you do not want to tell the name of the agent. For example, let's say that Mr. X, an important government leader, tells you: "The president is going to resign tomorrow." Maybe you do not want to embarrass Mr. X by writing: "Mr. X says that the president will resign tomorrow." So a newspaper might report: It is believed that the president will resign tomorrow.

    (d) When you do not want to hurt someone's feelings. Let's say that you received a wrong answer here at usingenglish.com.
    If a friend asks you "Who gave you that wrong answer?" you might reply: "I was given the answer on a helpline." You would hurt the Parser's feelings if you said, "Oh, that stupid Parser gave me the wrong answer."

    Those are just some of the uses. By the way, sometimes we use the passive to save space. Have you seen those store signs that say "English spoken here"? Well, that is just a short way to say "English [is] spoken here." The active would be too long for a sign:

    The staff members at this store speak English.

    *****

    Credit: The 1983 edition of The Grammar Book by Mesdames Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman, p. 228.

  4. #4
    Jadoon 84 is offline Member
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    Default Re: infinitive & gerund

    Thank you Sir very much

    Your information are very helpful, from now onward I will ask only question in each post.

    Warm Regards

    Abdul Basit
    Kabul

  5. #5
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    keannu is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: infinitive & gerund

    You are the first one to see an actual facial photo posted in the profile.(Oh! I have seen several others as well)
    How could you do that? Could you tell me the secret? I have tried it but to fail many times.

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