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    #11

    Re: Tongue part for vowels

    Quote Originally Posted by raindoctor View Post
    Laver calls them double articulations (dorsal + apical/laminal) cf. 'zi', 'ci' and 'si' Ladefoged describes them differently: syllabic fricatives.
    It would be helpful if you gave the titles of books when you mention writers. Thank you.

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    #12

    Re: Tongue part for vowels

    John laver's principles of phonetics. The relevant part is readable: Principles of Phonetics - John Laver - Google Books

    Ladefoged: The Sounds of the World's Languages

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    #13

    Re: Tongue part for vowels

    Quote Originally Posted by waikchow View Post
    Yes, I understand that, for like /g/, the velar stop, is produced with the back of the tongue. Maybe I should rephrase my question to in the production of the sounds involved with the front of the tongue, is it normal to use the tip of my tongue for the consonants, and the blade of my tongue for the vowel sounds.
    There is another point I want to add. Most vocoids are dorsal. Velar consonants are also called dorsal. So, what is the difference between dorsal consonants and vocoids? The difference has to do with the distance between mouth roof and the dorsum.

    At the velum:

    vowel < approximant < fricative < stop

    Unrounded high back vowel /ɯ/ < velar approximant /ɰ/ < voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ < voiced velar stop /g/

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