"From India did the numerals came, which, when they later come into Europe, were known as Arabic numerals"?
The simple answer is no. There are multiple problems with that. As far as your thread title is concerned, using "did" is not appropriate. An inversion would be rather unnatural for what you want to say, but if you absolutely had to, it would be:
From India came the numerals (no comma) which, when they later came to Europe, were known as Arabic numerals."
It would be far simpler and far more natural to say "The numbers which, when they arrived in Europe, were known as Arabic numerals, actually came from India".