My question is if there is the expression "by the end of year (1900)" in native English, or should I use "by 1900" only, if the "by 1900" can by used at the beginning of a sentence, is it normal and natural in native English writing and speaking?
Following is an instance:
By the end of 2011, the population of China was ..... or
By 2011, the population of China was ..... or
The population of China was ... by 2011.
Which pattern should I follow?
Thanks a lot!
You can use any one of those patterns, but you need 'the end of' before '2011'. 'By 2011' could mean 'at the start of 2011'.
As the year is so recent, your readers will want to know more exactly when in 2011 the population figure was reached.
It wouldn't matter if you were writing historically: 'By 1745, the population. . . .'