Ms Bell, one of the first female graduates from Oxford University, travelled through the Middle East, working as an archaeologist, explorer, cartographer and political officer for the British Empire, defining the borders of Iraq, Jordan and Saudi Arabia.
Since all these nouns can be plural, we should make them all parallel by adding DETERMINERS to all of them.This is my point of view. "working as an archaeologist, an explorer, a cartographer and a political officer"
"She worked as archaeologist" sounds funny to me. I'd include an article the first time. Including it every time seems tedious.
There's no need to put determiners in capitals or inverted commas.
It doesn't improve the sentence for me- it's just cluttering it up with unnecessary articles.