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  1. #1
    rambharosey is offline Junior Member
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    Default Participle or Gerund..

    He decided to succeed by working hard.

    Is "working" a Participle or a Gerund? How do we identify.

    Thanks,
    RB.

  2. #2
    5jj's Avatar
    5jj is offline VIP Member
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    Default Re: Participle or Gerund..

    Quote Originally Posted by rambharosey View Post
    He decided to succeed by working hard.

    Is "working" a Participle or a Gerund? How do we identify.
    Does it matter?
    Please do not edit your question after it has received a response. Such editing can make the response hard for others to understand.


  3. #3
    tzfujimino's Avatar
    tzfujimino is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: Participle or Gerund..

    Quote Originally Posted by rambharosey View Post
    He decided to succeed by working hard.

    Is "working" a Participle or a Gerund? How do we identify.

    Thanks,
    RB.
    Hello, rambharosey.

    "He decided to succeed by working hard."

    The '-ing form' that functions as a noun is called a 'gerund'.
    In your sentence, 'by' is called a 'preposition'.
    After the 'preposition', you need a noun/pronoun.
    So, 'working' in your sentence is a 'gerund'.

    I hope you'll understand what I mean.

  4. #4
    5jj's Avatar
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    Default Re: Participle or Gerund..

    Quote Originally Posted by tzfujimino View Post
    The '-ing form' that functions as a noun is called a 'gerund'.
    In your sentence, 'by' is called a 'preposition'.
    After the 'preposition', you need a noun/pronoun.
    So, 'working' in your sentence is a 'gerund'.
    "Note that -ing forms after prepositions can often be considered either as participles or gerunds - the dividing line is not clear." - Swan, Practical English Usage,2005. 384
    Please do not edit your question after it has received a response. Such editing can make the response hard for others to understand.


  5. #5
    tzfujimino's Avatar
    tzfujimino is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: Participle or Gerund..

    Quote Originally Posted by 5jj View Post
    "Note that -ing forms after prepositions can often be considered either as participles or gerunds - the dividing line is not clear." - Swan, Practical English Usage,2005. 384
    Thank you for the information.
    I've just checked the page.

    I think Michael Swan is talking about those words which function as both 'conjunctions' and 'prepositions', such as 'after', 'before', 'since' etc... If those words are used as 'prepositions', the dividing line is not clear. I think that's what he means. I believe the word 'working' in the sentence above is a 'gerund'. (Well, it doesn't matter when communicating.)

  6. #6
    5jj's Avatar
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    Default Re: Participle or Gerund..

    Quote Originally Posted by tzfujimino View Post
    I think Michael Swan is talking about those words which function as both 'conjunctions' and 'prepositions', such as 'after', 'before', 'since' etc... If those words are used as 'prepositions', the dividing line is not clear. I think that's what he means. I believe the word 'working' in the sentence above is a 'gerund'. (Well, it doesn't matter when communicating.)
    So what parts of speech are the underlined words in 'On being introduced, British people often shake hands'? My second question is the same as my first in this thread: Does it matter?
    Last edited by bhaisahab; 21-Sep-2012 at 09:40. Reason: Typo correction
    Please do not edit your question after it has received a response. Such editing can make the response hard for others to understand.


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