He decided to succeed by working hard.
Is "working" a Participle or a Gerund? How do we identify.
"He decided to succeed by working hard."
The '-ing form' that functions as a noun is called a 'gerund'.
In your sentence, 'by' is called a 'preposition'.
After the 'preposition', you need a noun/pronoun.
So, 'working' in your sentence is a 'gerund'.
I hope you'll understand what I mean.
I've just checked the page.
I think Michael Swan is talking about those words which function as both 'conjunctions' and 'prepositions', such as 'after', 'before', 'since' etc... If those words are used as 'prepositions', the dividing line is not clear. I think that's what he means. I believe the word 'working' in the sentence above is a 'gerund'. (Well, it doesn't matter when communicating.)
Last edited by bhaisahab; 21-Sep-2012 at 09:40. Reason: Typo correction