Re: Should "SURFACE AND GROUNDWATER" be "SURFACE AND GROUND WATER"?
It depends on style guides. In our company, which deals with water in the many places you find it, we make stormwater, groundwater, and wastewater one word (the spell checker doesn't like stormwater and wastewater), but surface water remains an open compound. We've never lost a contract because someone didn't like the way we wrote it.
I don't find it redundant to repeat "water" in this context. Surface water is lakes, streams, etc. Groundwater is underground, in aquifers or simply permeating the ground.
I'm not a teacher, but I write for a living. Please don't ask me about 2nd conditionals, but I'm a safe bet for what reads well in (American) English.