Re: phrasal verbs with the ordinary verbs
In my experience, learning phrasal verbs by heart as you stumble across them is the only way to do it. There is no pattern to them so it really is a case of simply realising when you've found a new one. Once you've identified one you've never seen before, get the definition(s) and learn an example sentence for each definition, preferably an example which means something specific to you.
Remember - correct capitalisation, punctuation and spacing make posts much easier to read.