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  1. #1
    Winwin2011 is offline Senior Member
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    Default speaker-oriented

    The followings are copied from Cambridge Grammar of English-R. Carter, M. McCarthy:

    Conveying physical distance
    The most common function of this and these is to point to things and people which are close to the speaker/writer in time and space. In general, this and these can be said to be speaker-oriented, as with here.

    I like this hotel, don’t you?
    Will he be coming this Wednesday?
    In this lecture we shall be looking in particular at Shakespeare’s History Plays.
    Have you finished with these newspapers?
    You’ll need these coins for the parking ticket.

    The most common use of that and those is to refer to objects and people which may not be easily identified from the situation. That and those are used to refer to things which are more distant in time and space, even though it may be possible to see such things. In general, that and those can be said to be listener-oriented or oriented towards a third person, place or entity.

    What’s that red mark on your face?
    The book had two endings. I prefer the second but that ending is a bit too sentimental for me.
    Could I see those videos on the shelf up there?
    We should move those chairs into the corner of the room.
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    I don't understand what does "speaker-oriented", listener-oriented or oriented towards a third person, place or entity" mean in the 1st and 2nd paragraphs. Could anybody explain it to me, please? Thanks in advance.


    Last edited by Winwin2011; 31-Oct-2012 at 17:08.

  2. #2
    SoothingDave is offline VIP Member
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    Default Re: speaker-oriented

    Close to the speaker versus more distant from the speaker.

    "This" pencil is in my hand, or right on my desk.

    "That" pencil is in your hand or across the room.

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