I think we've had this discussion before and I think there was some disagreement. To my mind, the word "gone" is being used as an adjective here, to replace "out".
He has been bowled out.
He was caught out.
He is out.
He is gone.
I hear it as a way of saying "He has been bowled/caught out and now has to leave the pitch". When he has left the pitch, he will have gone.
I think when we last talked about this on the forum, that there were some people who think that what is said is simply "He's gone" and that "He's" is a contraction of "He has". It's possible but it wouldn't make much sense because the player has not gone (in a physical sense) when the words are spoken.
We use it in some other constructions:
- Has Dave left yet?
- Don't worry. He's as good as gone.
("He's" is certainly a contraction of "He is" there.)