Dear teachers :
* This is the first part of two, the second part is available in other thread with the same title.
a) I have learned that perfect and past participle are actions done or completed. In perfect participle two actions in the past are involved, emphasizing that one action happens before the another one. We can use having plus past participle in the first action, which is the subordinate or dependent clause in the sentence; though sometimes the having plus past participle action has a lack of subject, the actions are performed by the same subject. The simple past is used in the second action or independent clause, for instance :
1) Having studied english, I started to learn french,
1) After I had finished studying english, I started to learn french.
2) The bell having rung, the students began the class.
2) After the bell had rung, the students began the class.
3) Having written the letters, I did some gardening.
3) When I had written the letters, I did some gardening.
b) Past perfect is a completed action in the past happening before or earlier than other in the past, in this case the past perfect action is the independent clause and the simple past the dependent clause, both clauses can be interchanged each other, for example :
1) When my little brother got home, I had eaten everything in the house.
1) I had eaten everything in the house when my little brother got home.
2) He realized he had broken his ankle when he tried to stand up.
2) When he tried to stand up, he realized he had broken his ankle.
3) After I got into the car, I noticed I had fogotten my laptop.
3) I had forgotten my laptop after I got into the car.
c) If a gerund phrase has an auxiliary in a sentence, the gerund will take the past participle form and the auxiliary have will take the '' ing '' gerund form forming the perfect participle, meaning that the person (s) being referred to, have done the action, for instance :
1) Working for an attorney was a valuable experience.
1) Having worked for an attorney, it was a valuable experience.
1) I have worked for an attorney, that was a valuable experience.
2) Finding him guilty caused his consternation.
2) Having been found guilty, caused his consternation.
2) He has been found guilty, that caused his consternation.
3) Forgetting his wallet. he could not pay the bill
3) Having forgotten his wallet, he could not pay the bill.
3) He has forgotten his wallet, so he could not pay the bill.
Last edited by grammarfreak; 17-Dec-2012 at 19:50. Reason: errors