1- Implies that he had to leave the day before in order to make it in time to call from his destination.
2- Implies that he could have left, but it isn't a requirement; the distance is short enough that he could have left on the day of the call and still made it in time to make said call.
3- Has to have = must have. Their meaning is the same.
So, it is relative and they are all correct depending on the circumstance.
Is there a possibility or not. 1/3 imply that there is no chance. 2 implies that there is a chance.