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    #1

    can+have+p.p vs. could+have+p.p

    Hello there;

    would anyone kindly explain the difference between can+have+pp and could+have+pp
    "she can't have missed out on the program."
    "she couldn't have missed out on the program."

  1. emsr2d2's Avatar
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    #2

    Re: can+have+p.p vs. could+have+p.p

    Depending on context (as always), both are possible.
    Remember - correct capitalisation, punctuation and spacing make posts much easier to read.

  2. Raymott's Avatar
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    #3

    Re: can+have+p.p vs. could+have+p.p

    Note that we don't normally use 'can have + pp' in the positive. So you can use "could have + pp".
    With the negative, "couldn't have" implies some sort of conditionality. In many cases, there's no real difference.

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