Results 1 to 9 of 9
    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Interested in Language
      • Native Language:
      • Korean
      • Home Country:
      • South Korea
      • Current Location:
      • South Korea

    • Join Date: Mar 2012
    • Posts: 67
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #1

    Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    "So far, dummies have provided invaluable data on how human bodies react in crashes and have contributed greatly to [improved / improving] vehicle design."

    I think both can be correct.

    If the answer is 'improved(past participle)', the objective of the preposition 'to' is design.

    But if the answer is 'improving', the objective of the preposition 'to' is 'improving' itself.

    And the 'improving' is not present participle but gerund.

    Can both be correct or only one of the two?

    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Academic
      • Native Language:
      • British English
      • Home Country:
      • UK
      • Current Location:
      • Japan

    • Join Date: Jan 2009
    • Posts: 1,507
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #2

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Quote Originally Posted by pseudo View Post
    "So far, dummies have provided invaluable data on how human bodies react in crashes and have contributed greatly to [improved / improving] vehicle design."

    I think both can be correct.

    If the answer is 'improved(past participle)', the objective of the preposition 'to' is design.

    But if the answer is 'improving', the objective of the preposition 'to' is 'improving' itself.

    And the 'improving' is not present participle but gerund.

    Can both be correct or only one of the two?
    Only the gerund form is acceptable here.

    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Interested in Language
      • Native Language:
      • Korean
      • Home Country:
      • South Korea
      • Current Location:
      • South Korea

    • Join Date: Mar 2012
    • Posts: 67
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #3

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    I'm afraid it is not.

    The original text has the past participle form.

  1. bhaisahab's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Retired English Teacher
      • Native Language:
      • British English
      • Home Country:
      • England
      • Current Location:
      • England

    • Join Date: Apr 2008
    • Posts: 23,656
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #4

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Both are possible.

    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Interested in Language
      • Native Language:
      • Korean
      • Home Country:
      • South Korea
      • Current Location:
      • South Korea

    • Join Date: Mar 2012
    • Posts: 67
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #5

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Thanks for your reply.

    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Retired English Teacher
      • Native Language:
      • English
      • Home Country:
      • England
      • Current Location:
      • England

    • Join Date: Jun 2010
    • Posts: 17,450
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #6

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Your thanks are appreciated, pseudo, but you don't need to send them in a separate post.

    We are all happy to accept a simple click on the Like button as your acknowledgement of our help.


    Rover

    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Academic
      • Native Language:
      • British English
      • Home Country:
      • UK
      • Current Location:
      • Japan

    • Join Date: Jan 2009
    • Posts: 1,507
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #7

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Quote Originally Posted by pseudo View Post
    I'm afraid it is not.

    The original text has the past participle form.
    Sorry, I misread your post in haste, thinking the choice to be (the usual one for learners) between gerund and infinitive. Yes, indeed, the past participle 'improved', functioning as an adnominal adjunct to NP 'vehicle design', is perfectly possible.

    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Interested in Language
      • Native Language:
      • American English
      • Home Country:
      • United States
      • Current Location:
      • United States

    • Join Date: Jan 2013
    • Posts: 23
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #8

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    I think you are right. Either can be used as the object of the preposition, and "improving" in this case is a gerund - a verbal noun - not a present participle. In that instance, "design" would be an adjective and "vehicle" would thus have to be an adverb modifying it. However, I can find no dictionary use of the word "vehicle" as an adverb.
    Last edited by hombre viejo; 19-Jan-2013 at 20:10. Reason: uneasy about "vehicle" use as an adverb

  2. 5jj's Avatar
    • Member Info
      • Member Type:
      • Retired English Teacher
      • Native Language:
      • British English
      • Home Country:
      • England
      • Current Location:
      • Czech Republic

    • Join Date: Oct 2010
    • Posts: 28,167
    • Post Thanks / Like
    #9

    Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Quote Originally Posted by hombre viejo View Post
    . In that instance, "design" would be an adjective and "vehicle" would thus have to be an adverb modifying it. However, I can find no dictionary use of the word "vehicle" as an adverb.
    No. 'Vehicle design' is a Noun Phrase. 'Vehicle' is not, and cannot be, an adverb.

Similar Threads

  1. Replies: 3
    Last Post: 18-Nov-2011, 01:22
  2. Gerund/present participle/present prog arghh!!!
    By Anonymous in forum Ask a Teacher
    Replies: 10
    Last Post: 09-Sep-2009, 23:21
  3. [Grammar] Compound Nouns, present participle, past participle, adjective.
    By Lthanh in forum Ask a Teacher
    Replies: 2
    Last Post: 11-Oct-2008, 16:03
  4. gerund or present participle?
    By Progress in forum Ask a Teacher
    Replies: 5
    Last Post: 25-May-2007, 16:16
  5. Use of Past/Past Participle or Present/Gerund
    By flyer13 in forum General Language Discussions
    Replies: 2
    Last Post: 09-Jul-2003, 19:55

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •