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  1. #1
    pseudo is offline Junior Member
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    Default Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    "So far, dummies have provided invaluable data on how human bodies react in crashes and have contributed greatly to [improved / improving] vehicle design."

    I think both can be correct.

    If the answer is 'improved(past participle)', the objective of the preposition 'to' is design.

    But if the answer is 'improving', the objective of the preposition 'to' is 'improving' itself.

    And the 'improving' is not present participle but gerund.

    Can both be correct or only one of the two?

  2. #2
    philo2009 is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Quote Originally Posted by pseudo View Post
    "So far, dummies have provided invaluable data on how human bodies react in crashes and have contributed greatly to [improved / improving] vehicle design."

    I think both can be correct.

    If the answer is 'improved(past participle)', the objective of the preposition 'to' is design.

    But if the answer is 'improving', the objective of the preposition 'to' is 'improving' itself.

    And the 'improving' is not present participle but gerund.

    Can both be correct or only one of the two?
    Only the gerund form is acceptable here.

  3. #3
    pseudo is offline Junior Member
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    Default Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    I'm afraid it is not.

    The original text has the past participle form.

  4. #4
    bhaisahab's Avatar
    bhaisahab is online now Moderator
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    Default Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Both are possible.

  5. #5
    pseudo is offline Junior Member
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    Default Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Thanks for your reply.

  6. #6
    Rover_KE is offline Moderator
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    Default Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Your thanks are appreciated, pseudo, but you don't need to send them in a separate post.

    We are all happy to accept a simple click on the Like button as your acknowledgement of our help.


    Rover

  7. #7
    philo2009 is offline Key Member
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    Default Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Quote Originally Posted by pseudo View Post
    I'm afraid it is not.

    The original text has the past participle form.
    Sorry, I misread your post in haste, thinking the choice to be (the usual one for learners) between gerund and infinitive. Yes, indeed, the past participle 'improved', functioning as an adnominal adjunct to NP 'vehicle design', is perfectly possible.

  8. #8
    hombre viejo is offline Newbie
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    Default Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    I think you are right. Either can be used as the object of the preposition, and "improving" in this case is a gerund - a verbal noun - not a present participle. In that instance, "design" would be an adjective and "vehicle" would thus have to be an adverb modifying it. However, I can find no dictionary use of the word "vehicle" as an adverb.
    Last edited by hombre viejo; 19-Jan-2013 at 20:10. Reason: uneasy about "vehicle" use as an adverb

  9. #9
    5jj's Avatar
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    Default Re: Gerund or Past participle or Present Perfect?

    Quote Originally Posted by hombre viejo View Post
    . In that instance, "design" would be an adjective and "vehicle" would thus have to be an adverb modifying it. However, I can find no dictionary use of the word "vehicle" as an adverb.
    No. 'Vehicle design' is a Noun Phrase. 'Vehicle' is not, and cannot be, an adverb.

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