So many questions. I don't want to be greedy, so I will just take two and leave the rest for other people.
5. The President announced to the shareholders that there would be no dividend that year.
Either the firm has fallen on hard times or it has a pressing need to re-invest its profits in its business. Either way, according to the president, there will not be enough money to pay a dividend during the coming year. Le président a dit aux actionnaires que l'entreprise ne pouvait pas payer un dividende au cours de l'année à venir.
6. The sound of a two-stroke engine
What is a two-stroke engine?
There are two types of gasoline (petrol) powered internal combustion engine. In a four stroke cycle engine the lubricating oil rests at the bottom of the crankcase, the shell below the crankshaft. The rotation of the crankshaft splashes the oil upward through passages called galleys into the reciprocating parts of the engine, i.e. the pistons, valves, rings etc.
In a two stroke cycle engine the lubricating oil is simply mixed into the fuel and burnt. Therefore two stroke engines produce much smokier and more polluting exhaust gas. The blue smoke produced by older motorcycles, and by the unlamented old Skoda cars from communist-era Czeckoslovakia, showed that their engines were two stroke.
To the best of my knowledge, however, two stroke engines do not have a distinctive sound. It is easy to distinguish the sound of a single cylinder engine like that of the old Enfield Bullet, boom boom boom boom, from the sound of a modern v-twin like a Harley Davidson or Honda, potato potato potato, but I don't think you can tell a two stroke by its sound.