There is no such thing as 'pronunciation borrowing.' Words are borrowed, pronunciations are adapted. Generally, my Korean students feel confident that Korean pronunciations of international words are clear to English speakers, but they generally are not.
Example: Bach, which my Korean students pronounce '/ba HA/'.
You're right that lots of Korean words (60% or so) come from Chinese, but they were borrowed so long ago that the Northern dialects neighboring Korea had 8 tones rather than 4, and were pronounced quite close to Cantonese today, which hasn't changed much over the centuries.
Examples: 학생, /hak seng/ = 學生 (Cantonese: /hok san/') vs Mandarin 学生 (/shue sheng/).
Literature studies: 문학, /mun hak/ = 文學 (Cantonese: /man hok/) vs Mandarin 文学 (/wen shue/).
I also think you're right many scientific terms in Korean (and Japanese) are adapted from Chinese, which is the 'Greek' of the East, the go-to source for new words using old roots.
Sometimes, the Japanese invent the 'Chinese' term before the Chinese do, as in Economics: 経済学, now adopted into Chinese from Japanese.
In any case, the pronunciations are fairly poor approximations and are not borrowed.
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