This quote ia attributed to Herodotus (c. 484-425 B.C.), a historian from Ancient Greece. At the time of writing, the Ancient Greek pantheon of God[B]s[B] was pretty big. Think Zeus, Hermes, Dionysus etc. and you get the picture.
If it were to be translated to a monotheist religion, we would lose the "The".
eg. "Whom the Gods love die young" becomes
"Whom God loves dies young"
This second version sounds a little awkward due to the need for the extra plurals...