'Communally' is correct here.
- For Teachers
This is about the meaning of 'commonly'.
In a korean textbook for high schoolers, they translated it into 'communally' or 'together'.
But I really doubt that...
here's the whole paragraph.
My opinion is it should be meaning like 'generally' or 'ordinarily'
For your reference, i introduce the whole first page of the original text. I'd like to know the meaning of 'commonly' in the first sentence of the third paragraph.
The loss of biodiversity has alarming implications for the persistence of humankind, indeed for the survival of life on Earth. Protected areas are the cornerstone of most policy proposals to maintain biodiversity, yet their effectiveness is intensely debated. Furthermore, when the variety of biological life is so rich, interconnected, and diverse, it seems peculiarly shortsighted and inflexible to adopt one single approach to conservation.
Protected areas are now very extensive: more than 220,000 parks cover over 13 per cent of Earth’s land. Studies have shown that most have been generally successful at ensuring that large-scale clearings of habitats do not occur within their boundaries. Yet considerable human threats still exist for many of them, particularly those in vulnerable locations with dense human settlements. Park managers face continuing challenges of poaching, illegal harvesting of forest products, and encroachment. Government-managed parks have also been criticized for being costly, inefficient, and exclusivist in their approach, tending to view indigenous tribes and local communities with suspicion and distrust, and ignoring and discounting the traditional institutions and approaches that they may have developed to coexist with nature.
It is also problematic to expect that government preserves will work for all species and habitats, across all environments, geographies and cultures, and across multiple, interconnected scales of space and time. So carefully examining different institutional approaches developed by groups at diverse scales to manage their natural resources can suggest policies for future conservation management.
Garrett Hardin, author of the seminal article on the “tragedy of the commons” in the late 1960s, held that all forms of commonly managed property would inevitably be degraded over time. But we have found, on the contrary, that under appropriate conditions many people do organize effectively to protect natural environments. Some institutions, such as in Switzerland, have recorded histories of persistence over centuries. Others, such as in Nepal, have been successful at maintaining forests even in conditions of extreme conflict and armed violence. Developing shared norms and rules that are considered legitimate and fair is crucial for achieving effective management of common property. Local groups in different environments and cultures have developed an incredible variety of ways to do this using their considerable indigenous knowledge. Yet, many analysts tend to discount this variety.
We strongly propose that we need a diversity of institutions to cope with the diversity of biological entities and niches.
'Communally' is correct here.
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