In this specific example it would be most common to say "I don't like winter." You could use the plural for something like, "Two winters ago we went skiing in the Alps" or "The winters in Montana are very harsh."
I honestly can not clarify for you when the noun is countable or uncountable. However, if you simply make a distinction between plural and singular that should give you the right answer as well.
Hope this helps!
In Perfect English