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  1. #1
    Maria Carolina Morais is offline Newbie
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    By or In - prepositions

    could you help me figure out what the best preposition is? (the literature review has already been carried out)


    In undertaking a literature review, it became clear that not always is there coherence between the principles...
    By undertanking a literature review, it became clear that not always is there coherence between the principles...

    Is there any difference between using BY or IN in the beggining of this sentence?


    Thanks!

  2. #2
    hetzer is offline Newbie
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    Re: By or In - prepositions

    Hi, I'm not a native speaker, but I would vote for "by."
    "in" refers to duration in my opinion, and "by" refers to the result.

  3. #3
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    MikeNewYork is offline VIP Member
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    Re: By or In - prepositions

    Quote Originally Posted by Maria Carolina Morais View Post
    could you help me figure out what the best preposition is? (the literature review has already been carried out)


    In undertaking a literature review, it became clear that not always is there coherence between the principles...
    By undertanking a literature review, it became clear that not always is there coherence between the principles...

    Is there any difference between using BY or IN in the beggining of this sentence?


    Thanks!
    My first problem with your sentences is that, in both cases, the opening modifier appear to modify "it", which is not possible. The review was undertaken by somebody. Can you rephrase the sentence?

  4. #4
    billmcd is offline Key Member
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    Re: By or In - prepositions

    Quote Originally Posted by Maria Carolina Morais View Post
    could you help me figure out what the best preposition is? (the literature review has already been carried out)


    In undertaking a literature review, it became clear that not always is there coherence between the principles...
    By undertanking a literature review, it became clear that not always is there coherence between the principles...

    Is there any difference between using BY or IN in the beggining of this sentence?


    Thanks!
    It would be probable to hear/read both, but among the many uses/definitions of "by" as, "during the period or course of" and in the context you present, I would go with "by".

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