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The only function of a present participle is adjectival?
Well, by indicating that you are unable to correctly identify the subject of a sentence when you see one, you have just committed a faux pas of similar magnitude!
The subject, for your information and edification, of the sentence
Is this your first time riding a horse?
is the pronoun 'this': 'time' here is what we grammarians call a complement!
I hope you'll therefore understand why I do not intend to waste any further time debating with you, and would strongly urge you to refrain from attempting to give any further advice on this forum about grammar, a subject about which you evidently know nothing whatever!
Participles, as their name implies, 'participate' in a number of different form-classes: they possess a combination of adjectival and verbal powers, and thus can both modify (in the manner of an adjective) and have agents/subjects (in the manner of a verb).
Gerunds, on the other hand, combine nominal with verbal powers.
Last edited by philo2009; 29-Jun-2013 at 01:44.
Thank you for the interesting discussion.
Well, I agree with Tdol that it is sometimes difficult to draw a clear distinction between a 'present participle' and a 'gerund', which I think is why they prefer to use the term '-ing form' to avoid making things so complicated.
Philo2009's expert opinion is, of course, very interesting and informative.
1. "I spend many hours studying English."
Is the 'studying' in the above sentence a 'present participle' or a 'gerund'?
In my opinion (I must admit I might be wrong because I'm not a grammarian), 'studying English' postmodifies the verb 'spend'.
Thus, it functions adverbially, which means the 'studying' is a 'present participle'.
2. "I spend many hours in studying English."
I doubt native speakers would use this construction, but the phrase 'studying English' is the object of the preposition 'in'.
Therefore the 'studying' in #2 is a 'gerund'.
I personally don't care too much about these things, but out of curiosity, I'd like to ask philo2009 a question again.
Is the 'studying' in #1 a 'gerund' or a 'present participle'?
Having fully answered the original question, I have no further contribution to make to this thread.
I trust that, in the meantime, you will take the opportunity to open a grammar primer and familiarize yourself with the meaning and usage of at least a few basic terms!
The apparent unnaturalness of an ellipted preposition is rarely grounds to dismiss it out of hand. (Cf. e.g. on next Tuesday, the - now - most unnatural-sounding ancestor of contemporary time adverbial 'next Tuesday'.)
I would be more than happy, if called on, to give you or anybody a basic tutorial in how to distinguish between gerunds and participles in another thread. My contribution to this one, however, is now over!